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Sunday, December 29, 2013

Bubur Ayam Bumbu Kuning (Indonesian Chicken Rice Porridge in Yellow Broth)


In Indonesian & English

Bahan
Bahan Kuah:                                                        Bahan Bubur:
1 Dada ayam, 1 lt Kaldu ayam, Garam    -  350 gr Beras tumbuk, 3 st Garam
2 cm Lengkuas & 1 Sereh-geprek              -  1 sm Kaldu bubuk, 4 Dn salam
2 Daun salam, 4 Daun jeruk, Minyak        -  2 lt Air, 100 ml Santan (opsional)
Haluskan utk kuah:                                           Pelengkap: (click pada link utk resep2nya)
5 Baw.mrh, 1 st Lada, 1 cm Jahe            -  Kedelai-goreng, Kecap asin/manis, Seledri
1 st Ketumbar, 2 Bawang putih                  -  Bawang grng, Cakwe-ptg, Kerupuk, Tongcai
2 cm Kunyit, 3 Kemiri, ½ st Pala               -  Sambal kemiri, Sate telur puyuh manis

Cara membuat
-   Bubur: Didihkan air, masukkan beras, masak sambil sesekali diaduk hingga hancur. Mskkan kaldu blok, salam, santan & garam. Kecilkan api, terus masak sambil diaduk hingga jadi bubur.
-   Kuah: Tumis bumbu hls. Didihkan kaldu, mskkan bumbu hls, ayam, bahan lain. Masak hingga matang. Angkat ayam, saring kuahnya. Potong ayam jadi 4, goreng ½ kering kmd suwir2.
-   Tuang bubur di mangkuk saji, beri ayam & kuah. Taburi kedelai, baw.goreng, Cakwe, seledri/dn bawang iris & kerupuk. Bumbui dng kecap (bila suka). Makan dng Sambal kemiri dan Sate telur puyuh manis (click pada link untuk resep2nya).

Ingredients
Yellow broth ingredients:                                                     Complements: (click on the link)
1 Chicken breast, 1 lt Chicken broth, frying Oil       -  Salty or sweet soy sauce
2 cm Galangal & 1 Lemongrass-bruised, Salt               -  Fried soy beans, Fried shallots
2 Bay leaves, 4 Kaffir lime leaves                                  -  Tianjin preserved cabbage
Spices to be ground-for yellow broth:                             -  Selery/Green onion-sliced
1 cm Ginger, 2 cm Turmeric, ½ tsp Nutmeg               -  Tapioca crackers
1 tsp Coriander, 2 cloves Garlic, 5 Shallots                -  Youtiao/Chinese crullers-cut
3 Candlenuts, 1 tsp Pepper                                               -  Candlenut chili paste
Porridge ingredients:                                                              -  Sweet quail eggs satay
1 tbsp Chicken broth powder, 2 lt Water, 4 Bay leaves 
350 gr Broken rice, 3 tsp Salt, 100 ml Coconut milk (optional)

Directions
-   Porridge: In a big pot, bring water to a boil & then add in the rice. Cook until the rice grain is soft. Put in the broth powder, bay leaves, coconut milk & salt to taste. Reduce the heat, continue simmering & stir occasionally until the porridge is ready.
-   Yellow broth: Sauté the spices paste. In a pot, bring broth to a boil & then stir in sautéed spices, chicken beast & other soup ingredients. Continue simmering until the chicken is cooked. Remove the chicken & sieve the broth. Cut the chicken into 4, fry for awhile & then shred the chicken.
-   Place the porridge in the serving bowls; ladle the yellow broth into the bowl & add shredded chicken. Sprinkle with fried soy beans, fried shallots, Chinese crullers, celery/green onion & tapioca crackers. Season with sweet/salty soy sauce up to your taste. Serve with Candlenut chili paste & Sweet quail eggs satay.

Sambal Kemiri (Candlenut Chili Paste)


In Indonesian & English

Bahan
2 sm Kacang tnh tanpa kulit-goreng             -  1 st Gula, 1 st Cuka, Garam
-  3 Cabai merah, 4 Rawit, 4 Kemiri                 -  120 ml Air, Minyak

Cara membuat
-   Goreng cabai2 utuh hingga layu, angkat cabai. Hlskan cabai, kacang & kemiri. Tumis dng sedikit minyak hingga harum. Mskkan air & sisa bhn, aduk & masak sampai sambal sedikit mengental. Hidangkan sambal kemiri ini bersama Bubur ayam bumbu kuning atau Nasi uduk (click pada link utk resep2nya).

Ingredients
2 tbsp Peanut without skin-fried             -  1 tsp Sugar, 1 tsp Rice vinegar, Salt
-  3 Red chilies, 4 Bird`s eye chilies          -  4 Candlenuts, 120 ml Water, frying Oil

Directions
-   Fry unsliced chilies until wilted; remove chilies from the heat. Finely grind the chilies, candlenuts & then sauté the ground spices until fragrant.  Add in water & the rest of ingredients; stir until the chili paste thickened a bit. Serve the candlenut chili paste as condiments for Indonesian chicken rice porridge in yellow broth or Indonesian scented coconut milk rice (click on the links for the recipe).

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Sate Telur Puyuh Manis (Sweet Quail Eggs Satay)


In Indonesian & English

Bahan
24 Telur puyuh-rebus & kupas            -  6 Bawang mrh & 3 Bawang putih-cincang halus
75 gr Gula jawa-sisir, 3 sm Kecap     -  Kulit dari 6 bawang mrh, 2 cm Lengkuas-geprek
2 Daun salam, 1 sm Gula                      -  2 st Garam, ½ st Asam, 8 Tusuk sate
1 sm Ketumbar bubuk, 1 lt Air

Cara membuat
-   Masak semua bahan kecuali telur & tusuk sate hingga mendidih di panci.
-   Kclkan api, mskkan telur puyuh & masak hingga telur berwarna coklat selama 30 mnt. Angkat telur dari panci. Tusukkan per 3 butir pada tusukan sate. Dapat dihidangkan dng nasi hangat atau sebagai pelengkap untuk Bubur ayam bumbu kuning atau Soto ayam (click pada link untuk resep2nya)

Ingredients
24 Quail eggs-boiled & peeled           -  3 tbsp Sweet soy sauce, 6 Shallot`s skin
75 gr Coconut sugar-sliced                 -  2 cm Galangal-bruised, 1 tbsp Sugar
2 Bay leaves, ½ tsp Tamarind            -  6 Shallots & 3 cloves Garlic-minced
1 tbsp ground Coriander                      -  2 tsp Salt, 1 lt Water, 8 Skewers

Directions
-   Cook all ingredients with the exception of eggs & skewers until it boiled; then turn the heat to low.
-   Put in the eggs & cook until the eggs colour becomes brown (±30 mins). Remove from the heat & then thread each 3 eggs onto the skewers. U can serve it as a side dish with warm steamed rice or serve the quail eggs satay as complement for Indonesian chicken rice porridge with yellow broth or Classic Indonesian chicken soup (click on the link for the recipes).

Cakwe/Youtiao (Crisp Chinese Crullers/Fried Breadsticks)


In Indonesian & English

Bahan
200 gr Terigu-saring, Minyak goreng         Saus Cakwe/Youtiao pedas:
5 gr Baking soda, 2½ st Baking powder     -  100 ml Air, 1 Bawang putih, 1 st Garam
½ st Baw.putih bubuk, 3 sm Minyak syr   -  1½ Cabai merah, 1 sm Cuka, 2 sm Gula
½ st Gula, 120 ml Air, ¾ st Garam            -  1 Cabai keriting, 1 st Maizena+1 sm Air

Cara membuat
-   Campur rata baking powder, baking soda, terigu, garam, gula & baw.pth bubuk. Buat lubang ditengah campuran, tuang minyak & air di lubang tsb. Aduk dng spatula sampai menyatu. Uleni dng tangan ± 2 mnt hingga terbentuk adonan kasar. Tutup adonan & biaran 1 jam.
-   Angkat salah 1 sisi adonan kmd lipat ke arah sisi yg berlawanan. Pukul/tinju adonan, ulangi prosedur utk semua sisi lainnya sebanyak 10 kali. Balik adonan, ulangi prosedur pelipatan & pemukulan. Bulatkan adonan & biarkan selama 5 mnt. Adonan akan tampak lembab & lengket. Mskkan adonan ke kantung plastik & simpan di kulkas 8-12 jam.
-   Keluarkan dr kukas, diamkan adonan ± 45 mnt sampai mencapai suhu ruang. Minyaki meja kerja & tangan. Gulung adonan perlahan2 sampai membtk stick/tongkat yg rapi sepanjang ± 40 cm. Tekan2 dng kedua tangan utk menipiskan adonan dng rata (pertahankan panjangnya) menjadi persegi berukuran lebar 5 cm & tebal ½ cm. Potong kedua ujung adonan. Ptg2 adonan setiap ± 2½ cm. Tempatkan setengah dari jumlah bilah potongan secara terpisah/berjarak. Ulasi tusukan sate/bambu dng sedikit minyak. Perlahan tekan tusukan di tengah2 bilah adonan yg sdh diberi jarak tsb dng arah memanjang (jangan sampai memotong). Ambil bilah yg blm ditekan, susun di atas bilah yg sdh ditekan. Tekan bagian tengah dari tumpukan adonan tsb secara memanjang dng tusukan utk melekatkan keduanya.
-   Isi wajan besar dng minimal 6 cm minyak & panaskan hingga 180° C.  Mskkan potongan dari sisi ujung utk menguji apakah minyak sdh cukup panas (adonan cepat mengapung bila suhunya benar). Kecilkan api ke sedang. Angkat 1 adonan tumpuk dng kedua tangan, pegang dekat sisi ujung2nya. Tarik ulur adonan sambil perlahan2 adonan dibentur2kan ke meja kerja sampai adonan memanjang seukuran ±20-25 cm. Mskkan adonan panjang ke minyak pns & goreng. Adonan akan segera mengapung. Balik2 adonan terus menerus dng sumpit/sutil. Gunakan sumpit utk sedikit merenggangkan ujung adonan agar dpt mengembang dng lbh baik. Goreng sampai kuning kecoklatan. Angkat & ltkkan di atas rak atau kertas penyerap minyak.
-   Saus cakwe pedas: Buang biji cabai bila ingin saus tdk terlalu pedas. Blender halus cabai2, baw. pth, air, gula, cuka & garam. Masak saus hingga rasa menyatu. Tuangi larutan maizena, aduk2 utk sedikit mengentalkan saus. Angkat
-   Sajikan cakwe/youtiao dng saus cakwe atau cakwe dapat juga dimakan dng Bubur ayam bumbu kuning (click pada link untuk resepnya).

Ingredients
200 gr all-purpose Flour-sieved           Cakwe/Youtiao Chili sauce:
5 gr Baking soda, 120 ml Water         -  100 ml Water, 1 clove Garlic, 1 tsp Salt
½ tsp Garlic powder, ¾ tsp Salt           -  1½ Red chilies, 1 tbsp Vinegar, 2 tbsp Sugar
½ tsp Sugar, 2½ tsp Baking powder     -  1 tsp Cornstarch+1 tbsp Water
3 tbsp Vegetable oil, frying Oil           -  1 Cayenne pepper

Directions
-   Mix well the baking powder, baking soda, flour, salt, sugar & garlic powder. Make a well in the middle; pour the vegetable oil & water into the well. Stir with a spatula until incorporated. Knead with your hands for ± 2 mins until rough dough formed. Cover the dough & let it rest for 1 hour.
-   Lift up the dough from 1 side & then fold it to the opposite direction. Punch the dough with your fist. Repeat the procedure with all of the dough sides for another 10 times. Turn the dough over & repeat the folding & punching procedure. Round the dough & let it rest for 5 mins. The dough should look moist & sticky. Put the dough in a plastic bag & then refrigerate it for 8-12 hours.
-   Remove from the fridge; let the dough rest in the plastic bag for ± 45 mins to reach room temp. Grease the working space & Ur hands; gently roll the dough out to a ± 40 cm long neat stick. Press it with both hand to flattened the dough to 5 cm width & ½ cm thick rectangle (maintain the length). Cut off both ends of the dough. Cut the dough into ± 2½ cm strips; then place half amount of the strips, apart from each other. Brush/spread a little oil in a skewer. Gently press down the skewer lengthwise in the middle of each separated dough strips (don`t cut it). Take the un-pressed dough strips & then stack them on top of the pressed strips. Use the skewer to press down the stacked strips lengthwise in the middle, to seal them together.
-   Fill a large wok/frying pan with at least 6 cm of frying oil; preheat the oil to 180° C.  Put in the end cut of the dough to test if the oil reached the right temp (the dough should be floats quickly when the temp is right). Lower the heat to medium. Use both hands to lift the stacked dough; hold it near the dough`s ends. Stretch it out & bump the dough on the table several times to make it to ± 20-25 cm long. Drop the long dough into the hot oil & fry. The dough will float to the surface quickly. Use a chopstick/tong to keep on flipping the dough around. Use the chopstick to loosen the dough ends a little, so that it has enough room to puff up. Fry until it turns golden brown. Remove from the oil & put it on a rack/paper towel to drain the excess oil.
-   Chili sauce: Blend the chilies (seed the chilies to make the sauce less spicy), garlic, water, sugar, vinegar & salt in a food processor. Boil the mixture until the flavor blended. Add in cornstarch mixture to thicken the sauce a bit.
-   Serve the cakwe/youtiao with the chili sauce or you can eat them with Indonesian chicken rice porridge with yellow broth (click on the link for the recipe). 

Thursday, December 26, 2013

Bebek Peking Panggang (Roasted Peking Duck)


In Indonesian & English

Homemade Peking duck will not be as good as what a professionally chef with proper equipment can do. There are some main problems if we want to make it at home:
Sometimes it will be hard to get a proper duck for the dish (the duck must not have a cut at its bottom end & also not a cut at its neck).
In order to make the fat to drain out/melts away & the skin to crisp during roasting, you have to separate the skin from the fat & flesh. To do this you need to blow up the duck with a pump. It will be good if you have a bicycle pump or just a simple foot pump for air mattress. But if you don`t have any pump, you still can do it manually with your fingers. Theoretically, what you should do is to separate most part (not all) of the skin attachment to the flesh. You won’t get a blown up duck when U do that, but at least the fat will melts away & the skin will crisp during roasting.
Hanging the duck procedure to dry it. It really depends on where you live..is it a cool & windy area or not..& sometimes the problem is, it`s not possible to hang it anywhere at all.
-   You should roast the duck in an open fire with wood logs or hang the duck on meat hooks in a large oven…not everybody have it.
I`ve read a lot & made some experiment to figure out on how to deal with those problems. What I wrote here are some of the solutions..it is possible to make a good Peking duck at home…J

Bebek Peking Panggang-Bahasa Indonesia

Bahan
1,6 kg Bebek-tanpa kepala, 2 sm Gula           Saus:
1 sm Bumbu ngohiong, 1 Daun baw, Garam1 sm Saus soya pekat, ¼ st Jahe bbk
4 sm Saus hoisin, 2 sm Baw.putih bubuk     -  6 sm Saus Hoisin, 2½ sm Minyak wijen
1 sm Jahe bbk, 1 sm Lada hls, 2 Pekak      -  1 st Maizena+1 sm Air-aduk
Bahan Penyiram:                                                     Pelengkap:
2 lt Air, 3 cm Jahe-geprek                             -  Pancake ala Cina-sbg pembungkus
1 st Adas manis, 2 lbr Kulit citrus kering   -  3 Daun bawang-potong tipis panjang
Bahan Olesan:                                                         -  1 Ketimun-buang biji, ptg tipis panjang
3 sm Saus soya pekat/Kecap delux, 3 sm Madu
50 ml Angciu, 1 sm Cuka/Air lemon, ¼ st Pala
1 st Bumbu ngohiong, 1 st Baking powder, Garam

Cara membuat
-   Buang jeroan & lemak di sekitar bagian bawah dekat lubang perut. Lumuri bagian luar & dalam bebek dng 2-3 sm garam. Bilas bebek termsk di dlm lubangnya sampai bersih kmd dilap hingga kering. Prosedur ini akan menghilangkan bau pada bebek. Potong ujung sayap & kaki bawah.
-   Campur bumbu ngohiong, lada, 1 sm garam, gula, baw.putih & jahe bubuk dng saus hoisin. Mskkan campuran ke lubang perut; mskkan juga 2 pekak & 1 daun bawang. Bila tidak memiliki pompa utk menggembungkan bebek, lakukan prosedur pengisian ini setelah melepaskan perlekatan kulit, sebelum prosedur penjahitan *.
-   Jahit lubang perut bebek dng tusukan bambu. Pegang kedua sisi kulit bersama2, tusukan bambu, kmd lakukan putaran utk mengembalikan kesisi tusukan yg sama (overlap) & tusukan lagi disitu, lakukan terus hingga lubang tertutup sempurna. Patahkan ujung banu yg terlalu panjang. Tusukan bambu satu lagi dari 1 sayap ke sayap yg lainnya agar sayap tertahan dlm posisi mengembang. Hal ini berguna utk mendptkan hasil pemanggangan yg merata nantinya. Lubang pada bebek hrs ditutup dng baik utk mencegah agar air panas tdk masuk ke bagian dalam saat proses penyiraman. Bila tidak memiliki pompa utk menggembungkan bebek, lakukan prosedur penjahitan ini setelah melepaskan perlekatan kulit **.
-   Utk membuat lemak agar dpt mencair/mengalir & kulit bebek menjadi garing/crispy saat proses  pemanggangan, kulit bebek terutama di bagian dada, perut & punggung, hrs dipisahkan dari lemak & dagingnya.
*  Dng menggunakan pompa: Iris dangkal bebek dng pisau utk memisahkan kulit dng dagingnya di daerah dasar leher depan, di daerah yg kokoh di atas tulang selangka. Sisipkan tube pompa kedlm lubang irisan di bwh kulit kmd pompakan udara kedlm bagian badan depan bebek. Balik posisi bebek, iris dangkal di daerah leher belakang, di atas tulang belakang teratas. Kmd pompakan udara ke bagian punggung bebek.
*  Tanpa pompa: Yang hrs dilakukan adalah memisahkan sebagian besar (tdk perlu seluruhnya) perlekatan kulit kedaging dng menggunakan jari. Pastikan kukumu pendek hingga tdk merobek kulit. Pijat2 bebek hingga lebih fleksibel. Secara perlahan putar & patahkan persendian2 sayap tanpa merusak kulit. Letakkan bebek di meja kerja dng posisi dada menghdp ke atas. Sisipkan jari telunjuk (dan atau jari tengah) diantara kulit & daging pada sisi kanan dari ujung atas leher. Secara perlahan, gerak2an/majukan jari2 dng sedikit menekan/mencutik2 ke area sekitar, sejauh mungkin yg dpt dijangkau utk melepaskan perlekatan2 kulit (berupa selaput2 tipis) ke daging di daerah dada kanan & sayap atas. Ulangi prosedur ini utk sisi sebelah kiri. Balikkan posisi bebek. Ulangi prosedur tsb utk sisi punggung kiri & kanan. Balikkan lagi posisi bebek, sisipkan jari2 diantara kulit & daging pada sisi kanan dari ujung bawah perut. Secara perlahan, gerak2an jari2 dng sedikit menekan ke area sekitar, utk melepaskan perlekatan2 kulit ke daging di daerah perut & paha kanan. Ulangi prosedur utk sisi sebelah perut kiri & bagian belakang bebek. Setelah semua selesai, masukkan campuran bumbu ngohiong, 2 pekak & 1 daun bawang ke dlm lubang perut *. Jahit lubang perut & juga lubang leher dng tusukan bambu **.
-   Simpan bebek tanpa ditutup di kulkas selama min. 3 jam dng posisi perut menghadap ke bawah.
-   Didihkan semua bahan penyiram, kecilkan suhu & masak selama 20 mnt. Rendam bebek di dlm bhn penyiram panas & siram2 airnya ke seluruh bagian badan bebek selama 20-25 detik. Proses tsb membuat kulit bebek menjadi kencang seketika.
-   Campur semua bahan olesan, sisihkan. Ltkkan bebek di atas rak panggang rata yg di ltkkan di dlm pan panggang. Ulasi seluruh bagian badan bebek dng bhn olesan. Simpan sisa bhn olesan.
-   Gantung bebek utk mengeringkannya di tempat yg dingin & berangin selama 6-8 jam. Bila tidak tinggal di tempat yg dingin & berangin, keringkan bebek di ruang tanpa pemanas dng memasang fan/kipas angin menghadap ke arah bebek. Cara lain adalah dng meletakkan bebek di atas rak panggang rata yg di ltkkan di dlm loyang panggang. Simpan bebek terbuka di dlm kulkas selama min. 38 jam. Saat kulit setengah kering, ulasi kulit sekali lagi dng bahan olesan. Kmd teruskan proses pengeringan. Setlh bebek kering, kulitnya akan terasa memantul & kering saat disentuh & warnanya kuning keemasan.
-   Saus: Panaskan pan dng api sedang. Mskkan minyak wijen, gula, saus hoisin & saus soya. Masak hingga saus mulai meletup2. Tuangi larutan maizena, aduk hingga saus mulai mengental. Angkat & biarkan hingga dingin.
-   Metode pemanggangan: Apapun posisi dlm pemanggangan yg akan dipilih, ingatlah utk mendiamkan bebek hingga mencapai suhu ruang lebih dulu seblm dipanggang & utk menuangkan ± 2 cm air ke dlm loyang panggang. Lemak yg mencair saat pemanggangan akan menetes ke dlm air di loyang tsb.
*  Metode gantung: Keluarkan semua rak. Panaskan oven 230° C (pasang kipas oven). Tarik keluar tusukan bambu utk membuka lubang perut bebek sepanjang 7½ cm. Gantung bebek secara vertikal dng penggantung daging ditengah2 dari oven. Letakkan loyang panggang berisi air di bawahnya. Panggang bebek selama 15 mnt. Kecilkan suhu ke 175° C & panggang lagi ± 70 mnt. Matikan oven tapi biarkan bebek tetap berada di dlm oven selama 10 mnt. Cara ini akan membuat cairan daging terserap kembali sehingga daging bebek menjadi empuk & tidak kering
*  Metode panggang berdiri: Panaskan oven 230° C (pasang kipas oven). Tarik keluar tusukan bambu utk membuka lubang perut sepanjang 7½ cm. Posisikan bebek berdiri di atas alat panggang/penyangga vertikal. Bila oven cukup tinggi utk memanggang bebek secara berdiri tetapi tdk mempunyai alat panggang vertikal, buka tusukan bambu di lubang bebek seluruhnya. Mskkan kaleng softdrink besar berisi air ke lubang perut utk menyangga agar bebek dapat diberdirikan. Letakkan bebek+penyangganya di dlm loyang panggang berisi air. Masukkan ke oven. Posisi bebek hrs berada ditengah oven. Panggang bebek selama 15 mnt. Kecilkan suhu ke 175° C & panggang lagi ± 70 mnt. Matikan oven, biarkan bebek tetap berada di dlmnya selama 10 mnt.
*  Metode panggang biasa/horizontal: Panaskan oven 200° C. Tusuk2 kulit. Buka tusukan bambu semuanya. Ikat kaki dng benang katun. Ltkkan bebek di atas rak panggang rata yg diltkkan di dlm loyang panggang berisi air (dada menghdp atas). Kclkan suhu ke 160° C. Atur posisi di dlm oven agar bebek berada di tengah2. Panggang ± 2 jam. Balik posisinya & tusuk2 kulit tiap 30 mnt. Bsrkan suhu ke 200° C. Balik posisinya (dada menghadap atas). Ulasi dng bhn olesan. Panggang ± 10 mnt sampai kulit benar2 crispy. Matikan oven, biarkan bebek tetap berada di dlmnya selama 10 mnt.
-   Buang tusukan bambu seblm daging diiris. Iris daging persis di sebelah tulang dada dari arah leher hingga ke perut. Kmd iris sisi samping dada kearah irisan pertama/tengah. Iris2 sisi atas belahan yg sdh terbentuk tsb secara diagonal.
-   Ulasi bagian tengah pancake dng 1 st saus. Ltkkan daun bawang & ketimun di atasnya. Beri bbrp ptg daging bebek kmd lipat pancake menutupi daging & sayuran. Hidangkan.

Bebek Peking Panggang (Roasted Peking Duck-English)

Ingredients
1,6 kg Duck-without head, 2 tbsp Sugar   Sauce:
1 tbsp Chinese 5-spice powder, Salt           -  1 tbsp Dark Soy sauce, ¼ tsp Ginger pwd
4 tbsp Hoisin sauce, 2 tbsp Garlic pwd       -  6 tbsp Hoisin sauce, 2½ tbsp Sesame oil
1 tbsp Ginger powder, 1 Green onion           -  1 tsp Cornstarch+1 tbsp Water-mix
1 tbsp ground white pepper, 2 Staranise    Complements:
Scalding ingredients:                                            -  3 Green onions-sliced into thin strips
3 cm Ginger-bruised, 1 tsp Aniseed             -  1 Cucumber-cored, sliced into thin strips
2 lt Water, 2 dried Citrus peel                     -  Chinese pancakes-wrapper
Glazing ingredients:
3 tbsp Dark soy sauce, 1 tsp 5-spice powder
50 ml Chinese rice wine, 3 tbsp Honey
1 tbsp Vinegar/Lemon juice, ¼ tsp Nutmeg
1 tsp Baking powder, enough Salt

Directions
-   Remove the innards & excess fat in the lower part of duck`s cavity. Rub the duck (inside & outside) with 2-3 tbsp salt. Rinse the duck well including the cavity & then patting it dries with a paper towel. This procedure will get rid the duck of any foul smell. Cut the wings tip & lower legs.
-   Combine 5-spice powder, pepper, 1 tbsp salt, sugar, garlic & ginger powder with hoisin sauce. Put the mixture into the duck`s cavity; also add in 2 star anise & 1 green onion. If you don`t have a pump to blow up the duck, do this filling procedure after you loosen up the skin, before the sewing procedure*.
-   Sew up the duck`s cavity with bamboo skewer. Hold the skin together, slowly puncture through; then overlap the skin & continue sewing until there is no holes left. Break off the protruding excess skewer. Stuck a long skewer from one wing to the next in order to make the duck spread its arms out, to facilitate even cooking later on. The duck needs to be sealed to prevent hot water from going into the inside part of the duck on the scalding process. If U don`t have a pump to blow up the duck, do this sewing procedure after U loosen up the skin**.
-   In order to make the fat to drain out/melts away & the skin to crisp during roasting, you have to separate the skin from the fat & flesh, especially on the breast, abdomen & back sides.
*  With a pump: Using a knife, make a small incision to separate the skin from the flesh at the bottom of the duck`s front side neck. Aim for the firm center just above the wishbone. Put the pump nozzle into of the hole, underneath the skin & then blow up some air into the duck`s front side. Flip it over, make another small incision at the top of the spine & blow up some air there.
*  Without a pump: What you should do is to separate most part (not all) of the skin attachment to the flesh with your fingers. Make sure that you have short nails so you won’t break the skin. Massage the duck all over until it becomes more flexible. Gently twist & break the wing joint without breaking the skin. Set the duck breast side up in a working table. Insert Ur index (and or middle) finger between the skin & flesh on the right side of neck`s upper edge. Gently stroke & move Ur finger around, as far as you can, to loosen up/separate the skin attachment to the flesh in the right breast & upper wing area. Repeat the procedure for left side of the duck. Flip the duck over & do the same procedure with the duck`s back side. Flip the duck over again; insert your finger between the skin & flesh on the right side of abdomen`s lower edge. Gently stroke & move your finger around to loosen up/separate the skin attachment to the flesh in the right abdomen & thigh area. Repeat the procedure for left side & also for the back side of the duck. After you are finished, put in the 5-spice mixture, 2 star anise & 1 green onion into the duck`s cavity*. Sew up the duck`s abdominal & also cervical cavity with bamboo skewers**.
-   Refrigerate the duck uncovered for minimum 3 hours, laying the duck belly side down.
-   Bring all of the scalding ingredients to a boil; reduce the temperature to maintain a good simmer for 20 mins. Soak the duck in this boiled water & ladle the hot liquid all over the duck for 20-25 seconds. This process will quickly tightens the duck`s skin.
-   Combine all glazing ingredients, set aside. Put the duck on a flat roasting rack set in a roasting pan. Brush the duck all over with the glazing liquid. Save the rest of the glazing liquid.
-   Hang the duck to dry in a cool, windy place for 6-8 hours. If you don`t live in a cool & windy place, dry the duck in an unheated room with a fan blowing on it. Another option is, to put the duck on a flat roasting rack set in a roasting pan, then put it all uncovered in the fridge for min. 38 hours. When the skin is partially dried, rub the skin one more time with the glazing liquid. Then continue to dry till the duck skin is dried. After it dried out, the duck`s skin will be springy & dry when you touch it & the color will be golden brown.
-   Sauce: Preheat a sauce pan over medium heat. Put in the sesame oil, sugar, hoisin & soy sauce. Cook until it starts to slightly bubbled; stir in the cornstarch mixture until the sauce thickens. Set aside & let it cool.
-   Roasting method: Regardless of how the duck was placed in the oven, just remember that you should return the duck to room temperature first before roasting & always pour ± 2 cm of water into the roasting pan. The fat should later on drip off into the water in the pan.
*  For hanging roasting: Remove all racks in the oven. Preheat oven to 230° C (turn on the oven fan). Pull out bamboo skewer to open the duck's body cavity by about 7½ cm. Hang the duck vertically on meat hooks in the middle of a large oven. Place a roasting pan filled with water underneath the duck. Roast the duck for 15 minutes. Reduce the temperature to 175° C & roast it again for ± 70 minutes. Turn the fire off & leave it in the oven for 10 minutes. This will let the juice be reabsorbed into the meat making the meat very juicy & tender.
*  For vertical roasting: Preheat oven to 230° C (turn on the oven fan). Pull out bamboo skewer to open the duck's body cavity by about 7½ cm. Place the duck on a vertical roaster, upright. If your oven is big/high enough to roast the duck vertically but you don`t have a vertical roaster; pull out the cavity skewer completely & then put a big soft drink can filled with water into the duck cavity to support the duck upright. Place a roasting pan filled with water underneath the duck+vertical roaster. Put them all in the oven; the duck should sit in the middle of the oven. Roast the duck for 15 minutes. Reduce the temperature to 175° C & roast it again for ± 70 minutes. Turn the fire off & leave it in the oven for 10 minutes.
*  For normal/horizontal roasting: Preheat oven to 200° C. Poke the skin. Pull out the skewer completely. Cross the legs & then tie them together with cotton thread. Place the duck on a flat roasting rack set in a roasting pan, breast side up. Turn the heat down to 160° C. Positioned the oven rack so that the duck would sit in the middle of the oven. Roast the duck for ± 2 hours. Flip/Turn over the duck position & poke the skin every 30 minutes. Turn the heat to 200° C. Flip the duck (breast side up). Brush slightly with the glazing liquid & roast again for ± 10 minutes until the skin really crispy. Turn the fire off & leave it in the oven for 10 min.
-   Remove all skewers before slicing the duck. Locate the duck`s sternum; make a cut next to the sternum, down until the abdomen. Next, make a cut along the side of the duck into the direction of the first cut (middle). Cut sideways diagonally.
-   Spread 1 tsp of sauce in the center of each pancake; add in some cucumber & green onion. Put some sliced duck & then wrap/roll the pancake around the meat & vegetables. Serve.

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